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Creatinine is a waste product that is produced continuously during normal muscle breakdown. The kidneys filter creatinine from the blood into the urine, and reabsorb almost none of it.
The amount of blood the kidneys can make creatinine-free each minute is called the creatinine clearance. Creatinine clearance in a healthy young person is about 125 milliliters per minute -- meaning each minute, that person's kidneys clear 125 mL of blood free of creatinine. The GFR can vary depending on age, sex, and size. Generally, the creatinine clearance is a good estimation of the glomerular filtration rate.
Your doctors may order creatinine clearance tests to check renal (kidney) function. Testing the rate of creatinine clearance shows the kidneys' ability to filter the blood. As renal function declines, creatinine clearance also goes down.
The Cockcroft-Gault Equation is used for the calculation of creatinine clearance.
Creatinine Clearance = Gender * ((140 - Age in years) / (Serum Creatinine in mg/dL)) * (Weight in kgs/72)
This equation requires two components. To get the first component, age in years is subtracted from 140. Weight in kilograms divided by 72 is multiplied with serum creatinine in mg/dL to give the second component. Finally, the first and the second components are divided and the result is multiplied with the gender of the patient. Of note, gender is computed as 1 for males and 0.85 for females.